Mexico Facts

Compassion has been working in Mexico since 1976. Through our work there, we gather Mexico facts about children in poverty. These Mexico facts and statistics provide a good picture of the reality of poverty and how Compassion is making a difference.

Poverty is a common problem in the country of Mexico but Compassion is working to change this. The Mexico facts tell a discouraging story, but Compassion is bringing hope in the midst of this discouragement. Our programs are changing the statistics one child at a time.

Don't let the hopelessness of Mexico facts overwhelm you. You can make a difference to a child in Mexico today!

Mexico

Compassion's work in Mexico began in 1979. There are currently more than 29,000 children participating in 174 child development centers. Compassion partners with churches to help them provide Mexican children with the opportunity to rise above their circumstances and become all God has created them to be.

Prayer Requests
  • Pray for Víctor in Mexico

    Apr 01, 2014

    Pray for God to comfort Víctor and his brother in Mexico as they mourn the recent death of their mother at age 34.

Featured Stories from Mexico
  • Out of the Trash Dump

    Aug 09, 2010

    Rummaging through a trash dump is Ricarda's and Francisco's only option to support their families. But their children have been given an opportunity for a different future.

Featured on the Blog
 
Mexico Map

Mexico Map 270x350 jpg

Learn About Mexico
History

Mexico has been home to advanced civilizations - including the Olmec, Maya, Toltec and Aztec - for thousands of years. When Cortéz conquered Mexico in 1521, he destroyed a flourishing Aztec civilization.

A Mexican revolt in 1810 later led to a treaty signing in 1821, which marked the beginning of Mexican independence. Twenty-two years of chronic instability followed independence: the presidency changed hands 36 times.

In 1845, the U.S. Congress voted to annex Texas, leading to the Mexican-American War in which U.S. troops captured Mexico City. Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848), Mexico ceded Texas, California, Utah, Colorado and most of New Mexico and Arizona to the United States. The Maya rose up against their overlords in the late 1840s and almost succeeded in driving them off the Yucatán Peninsula. By 1862, Mexico was heavily in debt to Britain, France and Spain, who sent a joint force to Mexico to collect their debts. France decided to go one step further and colonize Mexico, sparking yet another war. In 1864, France invited the Austrian archduke, Maximilian of Habsburg, to become emperor of Mexico. His reign was bloodily ended by forces loyal to the country's former president, Benito Juárez.

Social discontent rocked the country during the 1960s and 1970s, especially with rising urbanization and unemployment. In 1994, Indians in Chiapas revolted, demanding economic and political reform and currency devaluation produced near economic collapse.

In 2000 in the freest and fairest national election since the Mexican Revolution, former Coca-Cola executive Vicente Fox won the presidency. The victory was the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that an opposition candidate with the National Action Party (PAN) defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). In 2006, Fox was succeeded by another PAN candidate Felipe Calderon.

Education

The typical school year runs from September to June. Education is compulsory from ages six through 14. Universities, colleges and technical institutes abound.

Elementary school is six years and secondary school is three years. After three years of secondary school, children must choose an area to focus on in high school.

Mexicans value education and consider it the key to a better future for their children. For this reason, the Mexican government has set out to improve school curricula and has made primary education free and compulsory.

However, in many cases, it is a struggle to get students enrolled. Indigenous children, for example, may not enroll because teachers do not speak their dialect and they are discriminated against by other, non-indigenous children.

Religion

The constitution states that everyone is free to profess their chosen religious belief and to practice its ceremonies and acts of worship. The constitution also provides for the separation of Church and State.

Mexicans of different religions have a generally amicable relationship; however, in certain southern areas, political, cultural and religious tensions continue to limit the free practice of religion within some communities.

The constitution bars members of the clergy from holding public office, advocating partisan political views, supporting political candidates, or opposing the laws or institutions of the State.

Religious instruction is prohibited in public schools; however, religious associations are free to maintain private schools, which receive no public funds. Primary level home schooling for religious reasons is not prohibited explicitly or supported by the law; however, to enter a secondary school, a child must have attended an accredited primary school. Home schooling is allowed at the secondary level once schooling at an accredited primary school has been completed.

Source: International Religious Freedom Report, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, November 8, 2005, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51646.htm.

Culture

Mexicans treasure family and traditional values. Graciousness in conversation and other communication is highly regarded and relationships take precedence over other matters.

Art

The arts have been an important part of Mexican life since the days of the ancient Indians. Mexico has produced a number of renowned architects, painters, composers and writers. Murals, such as those painted by Diego Rivera, are an important part of Mexico's history. Writers, such as Octavio Paz, who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1990, have also captured Mexican culture with beautiful poetry.

Music

There are many types of folkloric music in Mexico. Following is a description of some of the most popular types of Mexican music.

  • Mariachi

A mariachi band is a group of five or more musicians dressed in traditional charro or Mexican cowboy costumes. The unique sound of the mariachi is created combining the sound of trumpets, violins and guitars with two Mexican traditional instruments, the vihuela and the guitarrón (two kinds of guitars).

  • Ranchera

Ranchera music is also popular. These "songs from the ranch" began during the Mexican Revolution and are about rural life, lost loves or social causes.

  • Marimba (Xylophone)

The marimba is an appreciated tradition in Mexico. This instrument is used to cheer up family and religious gatherings.

Holidays and Festivals

Holy Week (Semana Santa), March or April: a large celebration from Palm Sunday to Easter
Independence Day, September 16: Commemorates Father Miguel Hidalgo's call for Mexico's independence from Spain in 1810.  
All Souls Day, November 2: A festival to remember those who have died; considered by many Mexicans to be the most important festival of the year. 
Festival of Our Lady of Guadalupe, December 12: During this festival, Mexicans often make pilgrimages, sometimes walking for weeks from their homes to the main cathedral in Mexico City. 
Christmas Day, December 25: Mexican children help make a nativity scene. The nativity is complete on Christmas Eve when the Baby Jesus is placed in the manger.

Sports and Games

Soccer is the most popular sport in Mexico, followed by baseball. Jai alai, a type of handball, is also popular.

Typical Foods

Traditional Mexican food comes from the indigenous Indians, and many dishes are made with corn, hot peppers, squash, rice, rabbit, armadillo and turkey.

Molé, a dish made with chocolate and red chili, is one of the most important dishes in Mexico, specially prepared for great celebrations. Mexican desserts were created during the Spanish viceroys' time; they are made to reflect popular feelings and have whimsical forms and names.

Pozole

  • 1 lb. boneless stewing pork, cut into 1-inch cubes
  • 1/2 tsp. salt
  • 4 cups water
  • 2 dried ancho chili peppers, stemmed and seeded
  • 5 cloves garlic
  • 1-1/2 tsp. dried oregano
  • 2 Tb. vegetable oil
  • 1 onion, diced
  • 2 cups canned hominy, drained
  • 3 cups pork stock or chicken stock

Bring to a boil the pork and salt in the water. Reduce heat and simmer until tender, about 20 minutes. Drain liquid into a bowl. Place chilies in the reserved liquid soak for 20 minutes. Transfer the liquid and chilies to a blender. Add the garlic and oregano and purée until smooth. Set aside.

Heat oil and sauté the onion about 10 minutes. Add the puréed chili mixture, hominy and chicken or pork stock. Stir in the reserved pork. Bring to a boil, reduce the heat to medium-low and simmer uncovered until the pork is tender, about 30 to 60 minutes. Serves four.

Greetings

Mexicans use informal phrases to greet friends. It is also common to see friends greet each other by kissing on the cheek. The dialects of Masahua and Zapoteco are spoken by some Compassion-assisted children in Mexico. Masahua is spoken in the state of Ares and Zapoteco is spoken in southeastern Oaxaca.

Spanish

  • Hola (Hi)
  • ¿Cómo está? (How are you?)
  • Me llamo ... (My name is ...)
  • Gracias (Thanks)

Masahua

  • Jëikäto (Hi)
  • Jaibüto? (How are you?)
  • Inchungo ... (My name is ...)
  • Poji (Thanks)

Zapoteco

  • Shital nülü (Hi)
  • Shinü shoü? (How are you?)
  • Naa layä ... (My name is ...)
  • Stiüshepeli (Thanks)
Compassion in Mexico

Compassion's work in Mexico began in 1979. There are currently more than 29,000 children participating in 174 child development centers. Compassion partners with churches to help them provide Mexican children with the opportunity to rise above their circumstances and become all God has created them to be.

Mexico Facts & Figures

Visit the Compassion blog to learn more about our work in Mexico.

Mexico United States
Capital Mexico City Washington, D.C.
Population

109,955,400 (July 2008 estimate)

307,212,123 (July 2010 estimate)
Languages

Spanish only 92.7%, Spanish and indigenous languages 5.7%, indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2005)

Note: Indigenous languages include various Mayan, Nahuatl, and other regional languages

English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census)
Religions Roman Catholic 76.5%, Protestant 6.3% (Pentecostal 1.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other 3.8%), other 0.3%, unspecified 13.8%, none 3.1% (2000 census) Christian 78.5% (Protestant 51.3%, Roman Catholic 23.9%, Mormon 1.7%, other Christian 1.6%), Jewish 1.7%, Buddhist 0.7%, Muslim 0.6%, other or unspecified 2.5%, unaffiliated 12.1%, none 4% (2007 est.)
Literacy rate
Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write.
Male: 92.4%
Female: 89.6%
(2004 Estimate)
Male: 99%
Female: 99%
(2003 estimate)
Percentage of population using improved drinking water sources Urban: 100%
Rural: 89.6%
(2004 estimate)
Urban: 100%
Rural: 94%
(2006 estimate)
Percentage of population using adequate sanitation facilities Urban: 91%
Rural: 41%
(2004 estimate)
Urban: 100%
Rural: 99%
(2006 estimate)
Climate Varies from tropical to desert Mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the Great Plains west of the Mississippi River and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are warmed occasionally in January and February by chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
Percentage of population urbanized 76% (2006 estimate) 82% (2008 estimate)
Life expectancy Male: 73.05 years
Female: 78.78 years
(2008 estimate)
Male: 75.65 years
Female: 80.69 years
(2010 estimate)
Under-5 mortality rate 35/1,000 (2006 estimate) 8/1,000 (2008 estimate)
GDP per capita $12,400 (2007 estimate) $46,000 (2009 estimate)
Monetary unit Mexican peso (MXN) U.S. dollar (USD)
Number of people living with HIV/AIDS 160,000 (2003 estimate) 1.2 million (2007 estimate)
Percentage of population living below $1.25 a day 3% (1995-2005 study) Data not available

Sources for facts: The World Factbook, 2008; The State of the World's Children, 2008