The Mayan civilization flourished throughout much of Guatemala and the surrounding region long before the Spanish arrived. There are temple ruins, courtyards and steles, which record events from A.D. 771 and A.D. 810. Tikal, located in Peten, north of Guatemala City, has been declared a world heritage site by UNESCO. The Mayan culture was already in decline when the Mayans were defeated by Pedro de Alvarado in 1523-24. During Spanish colonial rule, most of Central America came under the control of the Captaincy General of Guatemala.
The first Spanish settlement in Guatemala was in Iximché (the city of Santiago), but was destroyed by an earthquake. The second colonial capital, Almolonga, flooded in 1542. Survivors left the city and founded Antigua, located near Almolonga, which became the second capital in 1543. In the 17th century, Antigua became one of the richest capitals in the new world with many baroque churches and the first Central American university, Universidad de San Carlos, which is now the nation's most prestigious university, known for medicine and social expertise. Always vulnerable to earthquakes, Antigua was destroyed by two earthquakes in 1773. The remnants of its Spanish colonial architecture have been preserved and declared a world monument and heritage site by UNESCO. The third capital, Guatemala City, was founded in La Hermita Valley in 1776, after Antigua was abandoned.
Guatemala gained independence from Spain on Sept. 15, 1821, but was officially established as a Republic in 1847 after a brief annexation with Mexico. From the mid-19th century until the mid-1980s, the country passed through a series of dictatorships, insurgencies (particularly beginning in the 1960s), coups and stretches of military rule, with only occasional periods of representative government.
Several attempts have been made to end the decades-old dispute in Guatemala, and the most recent was the 1996 signing of a series of peace accords by the government, leftist guerrillas and various other feuding factions.
A high crime rate and a serious and worsening public corruption problem were cause for concern for the government of Guatemala. These problems, in addition to issues related to the often violent harassment and intimidation by unknown assailants of human rights activists, judicial workers, journalists and witnesses in human rights trials, led the government to begin serious attempts in 2001 to open a national dialogue to discuss the considerable challenges facing the country.
National elections were held in November 2003. Oscar Berger Perdomo won the election. The new government assumed office in January 2004. This new government has made a great deal of advancement toward national security and education, which has given Guatemala a new hope for the future and has raised national solidarity within the population.
The typical school year runs from January through October. Guatemalans go to preschool four years, primary school six years, secondary school three years and high school two to three years, depending on technical training.
Recent statistics compiled by Guatemala's National Statistic Institute and the major universities of the country indicate that only 2 percent of Guatemalans attend universities and only half of those who do graduate.
Many Guatemalans do not attend school, but instead start working at a young age to sustain their families. Many don't see the long-term benefits of schooling, and many others get married or get involved in gangs.
The educational structure is in need of an overhaul. Schools sometimes don't have enough supplies to give children and some don't even have chairs or desks. In some areas, there are not even schools. Low teacher salaries have also contributed to a shortage of teachers.
Despite these struggles, the government's new initiatives have helped the Guatemala's education system. But the needs are so great that it will take time to see significant improvements.
Guatemalans' attitudes toward education depend on their social level in society. Many parents think girls should not attend school since they should be preparing for motherhood. In other cases, parents feel their children will improve through work, not academic study. Others would like to attend but do not have the money to pay the school fees. Guatemalans who are wealthier value education, but still find it to be a financial burden.
There is no state religion; however, the constitution recognizes explicitly the distinct legal personality of the Catholic Church. However, approximately 35-40 percent of Guatemalans consider themselves evangelical Christians.
The government does not establish requirements for religious recognition or impose registration requirements for religious members to worship together. However, the government requires religious congregations as well as non-religious associations and non-governmental organizations to register as legal entities if they wish to transact business. Such legal recognition is necessary, among other things, for a congregation to rent or purchase premises, enter into contracts, and have tax-exempt status. The government does not charge religious groups a registration fee. Although registered religious entities are legally exempt from taxes, Protestant leaders note that their churches sometimes are required to pay property taxes by local officials.
The Catholic Church does not have to register as a legal entity; it is so recognized in the constitution.
The government does not subsidize religious groups. The constitution permits, but does not require, religious instruction in public schools. There is no national framework for determining the nature or content of religious instruction in public schools. Accordingly, when provided, such instruction tends to be programmed at the local level. In the last year, the Ministry of Education has consulted with Protestant groups on the integration of general values, although not specific religious teachings, into school curriculum.
The government does not have any organized programs to promote interfaith understanding or dialogue. Nonetheless, the government has sought the support of diverse religious groups for passage of legal statutes on the rights of children and for implementation of health and literacy programs for children. For a number of churches, social projects are the primary forum for interaction with adherents of other faiths.
Source: Source: International Religious Freedom Report, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, November 8, 2005, http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51641.htm.
Holidays and Festivals
Guatemalans make hand-woven Indian textiles, pottery, clay and wood carvings.
Music is made with many instruments, including the marimba, an instrument made from different sized gourds, resembling the xylophone. Indian music is made using flutes and drums.
Sports and Games
Holy Week, March or April: The week before Easter. Guatemalans make intricately patterned designs on their streets, sometimes made of flowers and leaves but most often of colored sawdust.
Labor Day, May 1
Independence Day, Sept. 15
Revolution Day, Oct. 20: The anniversary of the 1944 revolution that resulted in a liberal government.
Saints Day, Nov. 1: Families get together to give thanks and eat.
Christmas, Dec. 24, 25: Guatemalans decorate their homes with life-size replicas of nativity scenes, pine wreaths, poinsettias and fruit. Tamales are served on Christmas Eve.
Guatemalans are passionate about soccer. They also enjoy basketball and bicycling. Children enjoy ball games, such as volleyball and dodge ball.
Guatemalans eat frijoles (black beans), maize (corn), chicken, eggs, white cheese, tamales, tostadas and hard, rolled tacos with meat. Guatemalans also make a unique array of soups and seed and vegetable sauces.
To present and eat your tostadas in Guatemalan style, top each one with only salsa, guacamole or beans. Use blanched onion rings, parmesan cheese and parsley to garnish them.
Fried Corn Tortillas
Place tortillas in oil and fry them until toasted. Pat with napkins to take out the extra oil and let them dry.
- 1/2 onion
- 1 pepper
- 1 16 oz. can tomatoes
- 1 Tb. butter
- Salt to taste
Boil half the pepper and one quarter of the onion until soft. Add canned tomatoes then blend in a blender. Next sauté the rest of the onion and pepper with the butter until softened, then stir the blended mixture with the sautéed mixture. Add a small amount of salt to taste.
- 2 avocados, peeled
- 1/4 cup onion, chopped
- 1 tsp. salt and pepper
- 1 tsp. fresh lemon juice
- 1/4 tsp. chicken powder or more to taste
Mash avocadoes (leave the seed in the bowl to keep them from getting dark) and mix with all other ingredients.
- 1 Tb. butter
- 1/4 cup onion
- 1/4 cup red or green bell pepper
- 1 16 oz. can black beans
- 2 Tb. water
- chicken broth to taste
- salt to taste
Fry the onions, pepper, beans and water in the butter. Add a small amount of chicken broth and salt to taste. Stir constantly until most of excess water evaporates.
Compassion in Guatemala
- Hola (Hello)
- ¿Cómo está? (How are you?)
- Bien (Fine)
- Sientese.(Please sit down.)
- ¿Quiere cafecito o un vasito de agua? (Would you like a little cup of coffee or a little glass of water?)
- ¡Es bien rico! (It is really good!)
Guatemala Facts & Figures
Compassion's work in Guatemala began in 1976. Currently, more than 33,300 children participate in 140 child development centers. Compassion partners with churches around the country to help them provide Guatemalan children with the opportunity to rise above their circumstances and become all God has created them to be.
Visit the Compassion blog to learn more about our work in Guatemala.
||13,002,206 (July 2008 estimate)
||307,212,123 (July 2010 estimate)
||Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna and Xinca)
||English 82.1%, Spanish 10.7%, other Indo-European 3.8%, Asian and Pacific island 2.7%, other 0.7% (2000 census)
||Christian (Roman Catholic, Protestant), indigenous Mayan beliefs
||Christian 78.5% (Protestant 51.3%, Roman Catholic 23.9%, Mormon 1.7%, other Christian 1.6%), Jewish 1.7%, Buddhist 0.7%, Muslim 0.6%, other or unspecified 2.5%, unaffiliated 12.1%, none 4% (2007 est.)
Definition: Age 15 and over can read and write.
|Percentage of population using improved drinking water sources
|Percentage of population using adequate sanitation facilities
||Tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
||Mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, arctic in Alaska, semiarid in the Great Plains west of the Mississippi River and arid in the Great Basin of the southwest; low winter temperatures in the northwest are warmed occasionally in January and February by Chinook winds from the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains.
|Percentage of population urbanized
||48% (2006 estimate)
||82% (2008 estimate)
||Male: 68.22 years
Female: 71.86 years
|Male: 75.65 years
Female: 80.69 years
|Under-5 mortality rate
||41/1,000 (2006 estimate)
||8/1,000 (2008 estimate)
|GDP per capita
||$5,100 (2007 estimate)
||$46,000 (2009 estimate)
||quetzal (GTQ), U.S. dollar (USD), others allowed
||U.S. dollar (USD)
|Number of people living with HIV/AIDS
||78,000 (2003 estimate)
||1.2 million (2007 estimate)
|Percentage of population living below $1.25 a day
||14% (1995-2005 study)
||Data not available
Sources for facts: The World Factbook, 2008; The State of the World's Children, 2008